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The combined stress mitigation strategy of plants also constitutes some unique morpho-physiological processes which makes the overall response of plants to stress combination different from that seen under individual stresses (Supplementary Table 1). For example, although both heat and salt stress are damaging to plants, concurrent salinity with heat stress enhanced salt tolerance of Solanum lycopersicum (Rivero et al., 2014). The combined heat and salt stress led to Na+ accumulation in roots rather than in leaves and shoots. Thus, heat stress resulted in salinity tolerance by inhibiting uptake of Na+ ions and by directing the accumulation of Na+ to roots rather than shoots (Rivero et al., 2014). S. lycopersicum plants treated with combined heat and salinity stress accumulated the osmoprotectants glycine betaine and trehalose in large amounts instead of proline which is a predominant osmoprotectant accumulated in plants challenged with salinity stress only. Under individual salt stress, activity of the enzyme 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) increased indicating the synthesis of proline from glutamate. However, under combined stress, a decrease in the activity of P5CS and increase in the activity of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) was observed suggesting that under the combined stress, proline synthesis occurred from ornithine through ornithine aminotransferase (OAT). The occurrence of proline synthesis through OAT has been observed in plants under some conditions (Krell et al., 2007, reviewed in Verslues and Sharma, 2010). Taken together, enhanced accumulation of glycine, betaine, and trehalose improved tolerance of plants exposed to combined stress (Rivero et al., 2014).
I began to understand the importance of research during my masters. My master thesis comprises of numerical studies on sloshing in a baffled tank. The major challenge in solving this problem was the location of boundary condition and the methodology to quantify this boundary condition. The interaction between the solid and the fluid is mutual and thus amplifies the effect. The fluid surface is open to atmosphere and the interaction between the solid and the fluid makes it more challenging. During this duration, I gained some knowledge on the challenges in liquid free surface flow.After my masters, I joined IIT Bombay for my doctoral thesis under the supervision of Prof. S.V. Prabhu. My doctoral thesis comprises of characterization of pool fires with and without blockage. Open pool fires are complicated in nature, as different parameters are involved. The challenge is in developing measuring techniques and equipments that can work at high temperatures, rigid enough to work in sooty environment and inert to chemical reactions involved in fire. In my postdoctoral research work, I am working on the numerical simulations of organic peroxide pool fires, which exhibit different radiative characteristics as compared to hydrocarbon pool fires. I am also working on the contribution of radiation from different zones of the pool fire to the pool surface and also to the surroundings.The thermal interaction between a body immersed in pool fire and pool surface is still a challenge in scientific research. A transient numerical model that works by coupling both the fire modeling and the solid modeling is required to be developed. I resolved to work in the area of heat transfer in fire, inverse heat conduction problems, and liquid free surface flow both experimentally and numerically. Nevertheless, I don't limit myself to a narrow area but I am open to any other challenging problems that fall under the category of thermal sciences.The passion for teaching has been inducted into my life through the impact of several teachers from my schooling days. I developed simplified techniques to teach Mathematics and Physics for Intermediate students during my bachelor studies. These techniques involve the concept and visual oriented knowledge.HobbiesReading books and BiographiesUsualy you would find me like this...ContactI would be happy to talk to you for any assistance in your course work or in research. Students, please drop in my office or call me. I am also interested in understanding/exploring your products for our institute and I would appreciate if you email me for an appointment.
It is a fact that the food packaging sector will be benefited from the antimicrobial nanocomposites as they remove (stops growth or kill) microbial growth on the surfaces, but there are some major drawbacks to being nanosized. They have a very large surface area. It can make a very large contact with a great capacity for absorption and migration as well as in cell membranes. As we know, nanostructures can move more freely than higher scale ones. Exposure to nanoparticles in food packaging can be done through 3 methods which are the following: dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation of the food, and nanoparticles enter the food chain by being eventually released into the environment indirectly as we can deduce that if nanoparticles are in the package of food, then it might eventually come in contact with the food. The migration of the nanoparticles will eventually have some effect which will then promote sensory changes in the food. It necessitates investigating how heat might affect health after the ingestion of nanoparticles .
Glass bottles and jars have a long history in food packaging. They are impenetrable to insects, microorganisms, water vapor, odours, and passage of gases, keeping up with the food freshness for more time. The blowing process is used to manufacture glass bottles and jars. It requires silica (sand), sodium carbonate (the melting agent), limestone/calcium carbonate, and alumina (stabilizers) to be combined into a mixture based on the properties . The mixture melts into a thick liquid mass at high temperature and then is poured into moulds. It becomes a molten material. Glass containers are reusable, rigid, recyclable, refillable, and heat processed. The advantages of glass containers are that they are virtually inert, environment-friendly, odourless, chemically inert, and impermeable to gases and vapors. The disadvantages are heavyweight, breakable, high transportation cost, and heat transparency. Glass bottles and jars are used in packing foods such as juices, jams, pickles, sauce, spreads, syrups, wines, meat, fish, coffee, and dairy products [47, 48].
Plastics are made through polymerization or polycondensation processes from cellulose, salt, coal, natural gas, and crude oil. Various plastics are being used to pack food, including polyolefin, polyester, polystyrene, ethylene-vinyl alcohol, polyvinyl chloride, and polyvinylidene chloride. Polyolefins and polyesters are commonly used in food packaging . Plastic is used in bottles, bowls, pots, trays, bags, foils, cups, and pouches to pack foods like chips, fresh salads, jams, juices, vegetables, fruits, cold meats, and snacks. It is used widely because of its low cost, thermostability, inert, odour-free, microwave ability, flexibility, ease of transport, and highly economical. It has disadvantages like nonbiodegradable, sensitivity to a chemical reaction, durability, and shrinks when heated .
Paper and boards are made from wood pulp, cotton, sugar cane waste, flax, bamboo, and wheat straw. It is the oldest packaging material. Plain paper is not used to secure food for more time. Paper is used to making boxes, paper plates, folding cartons, tubes, sacks, cups, bags, leaflets, and wrapping paper. Various types of paper are used to pack food, such as (1) sulfate treatment process makes Kraft paper. The main benefit of Kraft paper is that it is a naturally biodegradable product, has more durability, has a lower material cost, and is lightweight. It is used to pack foods like dried fruits and vegetables, wrap meat, flour, and sugar. (2) Parchment paper is made from acid-treated pulp. It is free from impurities like starch, gelatin, casein, and formaldehyde. It has high density, stability, excellent grease, and moisture resistance. It is utilized to pack foods such as butter and lard.
Polylactic acid is a type of polymeric nanoparticle used in food packaging. It is economically friendly, biodegradable, easy to produce, and toxic-free. It is used to pack sensitive food products in the food industry . It is produced by sustainable resources and low carbon emission processes, mainly derived from corn starch, sweet potato, rice, sugarcane, and wheat. It has more properties like high thermal processability, antibacterial, flame-retardant, good heat sealability, and oil- and water-resistant properties. The polylactic acid with many nanoparticles like silver, zinc, and titanium helps to keep the food fresh and preserve the cooked food and yogurt cheese . 2b1af7f3a8