Edmund of York, after having fought in the crusades, returned to England and became Archbishop of York in 1133. After his death, his extensive estates were granted to Fulk of Anjou, the King of Jerusalem. One of the estates was Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire. In 1199, Fulk's widow, Margaret, sold the Berkeley Castle to Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall. Richard became the first Earl of Cornwall. His son was Richard, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, who in turn married Isabella, daughter of Philip of France. The eldest son of this union was John of Gaunt, who inherited the collection of titles of his grandfather, the 2nd Earl of Cornwall, upon the death of his father, his brother and the 2nd Earl of Warwick.
In 1405, on the death of his nephew, Richard, 3rd Earl of Cornwall, he left the title of the Earl of Lincoln to his grandson, instead of his grandson, John, who already was the heir to the Dukedom of Lancaster. In 1407, John was made Duke. So, upon the death of John of Gaunt, in 1443, the 2nd Duke inherited the Dukedom of Lancaster.
In 1505, upon the death of the 2nd Duke, the title of his grandson, Henry VII, became the title of the present Earl of Lincoln. Henry VII kept the title of Duke of Lancaster which he inherited from his wife, the Princess Catherine of Aragon, daughter of the King of Castile and Leon, Ferdinand. Ferdinand later become King of Spain and simultaneously Holy Roman Emperor. By marrying the daughter of the King of England, Henry VII became King of his country and inherited the title of King.
In the 16th century, the Statute of Quia Emptores forbade any further sub-infeudation of manors. With the Act of Union in 1707, the Crown became entitled to one third of manorial revenues. This enabled the Crown to recover old debts and very soon to make large payments to landowners, to the outrage of many. The population of England increased greatly in the 19th century, and an urban middle class emerged. This meant a new demand for agricultural products. d2c66b5586